- Module Introduction and Requirements
- Lecture & Reading Schedule
- Guide to Response Papers
- Handout on Footnotes and Bibliography
Module Introduction and Requirements
The course serves as an introduction to history in general and the history of modern Singapore in particular. It adopts a wide-angled approach to an understanding of national heritage, history and identity, with due attention to both international and internal developments which have together shaped present-day Singapore. These developments include the formation of a colonial plural society under British rule, the impact of the Japanese Occupation, the rise of nationalism and political contestation, statehood, merger with and separation from Malaysia, the politics and economics of survival, and the governance of an independent city-state.
Module Requirements and Modes of Assessment
Welcome to the University Scholars Programme History Module USE2304, entitled Singapore: The Making of a Nation. In order to benefit from this module, you would need to understand its requirements and modes of assessment.
You are expected to attend the weekly Lectures, each of which occupies a two-hour slot (with a short mid-lecture break), and the fortnightly Tutorials, which also occupy two-hour slots. Attendance at tutorials is compulsory.
You will be assessed on the basis of five response papers. The first four will be 15% each of your final grade. The last response paper is longer and account for 30% of your final grade. Your tutorial participation is 10% of your final grade.
I will give you more detailed guidance on the formats of the Response at the appropriate times.
Lecture and Reading Schedule, Semester 1 AY2019-2020
Items marked with * means that they are available in the USP reading room. All other items can be found in Central Library RBR.
Lecture 1 (11/8). Introducing History
Evans, Richard J. In Defence of History. London: Granta,1997. [D 13 Eva] (Introduction + Chapter 3).*
Warren, John. History and the Historians. London: Hodder & Stoughton,1999. [D 13 War; I-copy: I 0260] (Chapters 5 and 6).*
Alternatively: Warren, John, The Past and Its Presenters. London: Hodder & Stoughton,1998. [D 13 War] (Chapters 1 & 5).*
Storey, William K. Writing History. A Guide for Students. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.[D 16 Sto] (Start with the Introduction and Chapters 1-4).*
Lecture 2 (18/8). Introducing Empire, Colony, and Nation in Southeast Asia
Osborne, Milton. Exploring Southeast Asia. NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2002 (Chapter 4). [DS 525 osb 2002] *
Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism: theory, ideology, history. Malden, Mass:Polity 2001 (Chapter 1-2). [RBR:JC311 smi]
Tarling, Nicholas. Nations and States in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. [RBR DS 526.7 Tar] *
Lecture 3 (25/8). Founding of Singapore
Chew, Ernest. "Founders and Builders of Early Colonial Singapore." Sketches in the Straits lecture series. NUS Museums. Singapore.*
Chew, Ernest C.T. and Lee, Edwin, ed. A History of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press,1991. [DS 599.63 His] (Chapters 1-3).*
Turnbull, C.M. A History of Singapore 1819-1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. [DS 599.6 Tur] (Chapter 1).*
Chew, Ernest C.T., articles on Raffles, Farquhar and Crawfurd in The Raffles Town Club Magazine,Jan-Mar 2002, Apr-June 2002, and July-Sept 2002.*
Lecture 4 (1/9). Shaping of a Colonial Plural Society
Chew, Ernest C.T. and Lee, Edwin, ed. A History of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press,1991. [DS 599.65 His] (Chapters 4,11,14).*
Turnbull, C.M. A History of Singapore 1819-1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. [DS 599.6 Tur] (Chapters 2-3).*
Wilson, H.E. Social Engineering in Singapore. Educational Policies and Social Change 1819-1972. Singapore: University Press,1978. [LA 1239.2 Wil]. (Chapters 1-2).*
Dobbs, Stephen. The Singapore River: A Social History 1819-2002. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2003. [RBR/SMC: DS599.6 Dob 2003]. (Especially parts 1 and 2).
Liu, Gretchen. Singapore: A Pictorial History 1819-2000. Singapore: Archipelago Press, 1999. (Chapters 1-2).*
Lim, Irene. Sketches in the Straits: Nineteenth Century Watercolours and Manuscript of Singapore, Malacca, Penang and Batavia by Charles Dyce. Singapore: NUS Museums, 2003.
Lecture 5 (8/9). Rise and Fall of a British Fortress
Murfett, Malcolm et al. Between Two Oceans. A Military History of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1999. [DS 599.61 Bto]. (Chapters 3, 5-8).*
Turnbull, C.M. A History of Singapore 1819-1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. [DS 599.6 Tur] (Chapters 4-5).*
Farrell, Brian and Sandy Hunter, eds. Sixty Years On: The Fall of Singapore Revisited. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 2002. (Chapters 7-9, 11-13).* [RBR: DS599.61 Csy 2002]
Lecture 6 (15/9). Japanese Occupation and the Struggle for Independence
Chew, Ernest C.T. and Edwin Lee, eds. A History of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1991. [DS 599.63 His] (Chapters 6-7). *
Kratoska, Paul. The Japanese Occupation of Malaya 1941-1945. London: Hurst, 1998. (Especially Chapters 4, 11-12).[RBR: DS596.4 Kra]*
McCoy, Alfred W., ed. Southeast Asia under Japanese Occupation. New Haven: Yale University SEA Studies, 1980. [DS 767 Sou] (Introduction).*
Turnbull, C.M. A History of Singapore 1819-1988. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. [DS 599.6 Tur] (Chapter 7).*
Lecture 7 (6/10). Battles for Merger and Malaysia
Lau, Albert. A Moment of Anguish: Singapore in Malaysia and the Politics of Disengagement. Singapore: Times Academic Press,1998. [DS 599.62 Lau]. (Chapters 1 and 8).*
Mohamed Noordin Sopiee. From Malayan Union to Singapore Separation: Political Unification in the Malaysia Region 1945-1965 Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya, 1976. [JQ 699.6 Mns] (Chapters 6 and 7).*
Lee Kuan Yew. The Singapore Story. abridged ed. Singapore: Federal Publications, 2000. [RBR/ DS599.51 Lee] (Chapters 17-29)
Tan, Jing Quee and Jomo K.S., eds. Comet in Our Sky: Lim Chin Siong in History. Kuala Lumpur: INSAN, 2001 [RBR: DS599.51 Lcsi.C].
Tan, Tai Yong. Creating 'Greater Malaysia'. Singapore: ISEAS, 2008. [RBR: DS596.5 Tan 2008]
Lecture 8 (13/10). Building the New Nation
Lee, Edwin, Singapore, The Unexpected Nation, Singapore; ISEAS, 2008. [RBR: DS610.4 Lee 2008] (Chapters 10-16).
Chua Beng Huat. Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore London and New York: Routledge, 1995. [JQ729 Chu] (Chapter 5)
Lee Kuan Yew. From Third World to First. Singapore: Times Editions, 2000. [RBR/SMC/HL DS599.51 Lee] (Especially Part 1)
Hong Lysa and Huang Jianli. The Scripting of a National History. Singapore: NUS Press, 2008, [RBR: DS599.6 Hon 2008] (Chapters 5-7).
Lecture 9 (20/10). Ethnicity and Multiracialism
Lee, Edwin. Singapore. (Chapter 21).
Purushotam, Nirmala. "Disciplining Difference: Race in Singapore". Southeast Asian Identities: Culture and the Politics of Representation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Ed. Joel S. Kahn. Singapore and London: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1998. 51-94.*
Chua, Beng Huat. "Culture, Multiracialism, and National Identity in Singapore". Trajectories: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. Ed. Kuan-Hsing Chen. London and New York: Routledge, 1998. 186-205. [RBR: I-4331]*
Chua, Beng Huat. "Racial Singaporeans: Absence after the Hyphen". Southeast Asian Identities: Culture and the Politics of Representation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Ed. Joel S. Kahn. Singapore and London: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1998. 28-50.*
Vasil, Raj. Asianising Singapore: The PAP's Management of Ethnicity. Singapore: Heinemann Asia, 1995.*
Hong Lysa and Huang Jianli, The Scripting of a National History. (Chapters 8-10).
Lecture 10 (3/11). Nation Under Globalization
Velayutham, Selvaraj. Responding to Globalization. Singapore: ISEAS, 2007, [DS610 Vel2007](Chapter 21).
Wee, C.J.W.-L. "From Universal to Local Culture: The State, Ethnic Identity, and Capitalism in Singapore." Local Cultures and the "New Asia": The State, Culture and Capitalism in Southeast Asia. Ed. C.J.W.-L. Wee. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002. [RBR: I-2834]*
Lee, Edwin. Singapore. (Chapter22)
Quah, Jon S.T. "Globalization and Singapore's Search for Nationhood." Nationalism and Globalization: East and West. Ed. Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2000. 71-101. [JC311 Nat; RBR: I-2691]*
Guide to Response Papers
The response papers are 'bite-sized' mini-essays where you get to explore a question or topic, reflect on it, and present your thoughts in argument form. Do choose your questions carefully so that you can maximise your own intellectual exploration and strategically cover the course content at the same time.
- Do print one-sided, with a decent margin all round, and in an easy-to-read font (Times New Roman, size 12, 1½ spaced is recommended), and staple it together.
- Please provide the following information at the top right-hand corner of the first page:
|Module number / Tutorial group||USE2304 / Group|
|Response paper number||1, 2, 3 or 4|
|Question Number||If applicable|
|Date of submission|
|Number of words|
- Print your title below this information block. You can either use the given question verbatim, or you adapt a title of your own that is faithful to the focus and requirements of the original question.
- Please include a bibliography, and footnotes where appropriate. For a guide to when and how to footnote, please refer to the handout on the footnoting and bibliography tab;distributed at the first tutorial.
- The length of your paper should be from 500-700 words, including footnotes but excluding the bibliography.
Choosing a topic, and readings
- Your tutor may give you questions to choose from, or you alternatively you can come up with your own. The lectures should give you plenty of ideas for suitable topics.
- Choose the relevant readings from the course recommended reading list. Alternatively, you can use relevant readings that you find on your own. Two or three readings per response paper are sufficient.
Writing and editing the paper
- Do the reading, think about the issues, draw up your argument, and write in formal, Standard English. We recognize that you can't comprehensively cover all angles in 700 words, but try to argue tightly and consider several points of view.
- It's often much easier to spot errors and make corrections in hard copy (of course, there's also the spell checker).
- Make sure that you keep a saved copy.
- What we're looking for is evidence that you've done some readings and thought about the issues. Credit will be given for well-defined, well-structured and well-supported arguments in good English.
- The four response papers together make up 20% of the total grade. Failure to submit without good reason given prior to the deadline may result in a zero grade.
Please hand in your essays in hardcopy to your tutor's mailbox by the following deadlines:
|Response paper 1||Friday, 29 Aug, 4pm|
|Response paper 2||Friday, 12 Sep, 4pm|
|Response paper 3||Friday, 3 Oct, 4pm|
|Response paper 4||Friday, 17 Oct, 4pm|
Please do not submit your essays in softcopy unless instructed otherwise.
Handout on Footnotes and Bibliography
READ THIS FIRST: Many of the references to books and articles that appear in the Scholars Programme website use a style meant to enhance visibility on the computer screen. For example, book or periodical titles appear in boldface. This is not a standard style and students should not use it in their essays. Please follow the instructions set out below.
Footnotes are the means by which a writer indicates his or her sources. They show the reader where you obtained factual information, what interpretation you have adopted from other sources, and where more information on the same subject can be found.
A statement without a footnote is understood to be your own opinion or judgment. Every quotation, every paraphrase of a quotation and any opinion or judgment that distinctly belongs to another writer must be footnoted. It is dishonest to do otherwise.
Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the relevant page, or at the end of the essay (endnotes) and should follow the following examples. For further information, refer to the British edition of Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations [LB 2369 Tur].
For the first-time reference to a book source: Author, Title of book (Place of publication: Publisher, year), page/s. Alternatively the book or periodical title may be underlined instead of italicised. Also note that many students often make the mistake of placing the surname first before the given names. For example, Turnbull, C.M. This is what you would normally use in your bibliography. But in your footnotes, the names must appear in normal spoken order (ie. C.M. Turnbull, Yeo Kim Wah, Ernest C.T. Chew). Here is an example of what a footnote would look like:
C.M. Turnbull, A History of Singapore 1819-1988 (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 72. [use pp. if more than one page, for example, pp. 72-86]
For first-time reference to a journal article: Author, 'Title of article', Journal, volume, part/number (year), page/s. For example:
R.S. Milne, 'Singapore's exit from Malaysia: the consequences of ambiguity', Asian Survey, 6, 3 (March 1966), 179.
For first-time reference to an article in a book: Author, 'Title of article', in Book title,, edited by [editor's name] (Place of publication: Publisher, year). Another common mistake students make is to cite the entire edited volume and leave out the name of the individual author behind the article the student is referencing. Do remember that it is the individual article that must be referenced, not the entire volume. For example:
Yeo Kim Wah and Albert Lau, 'From Colonialism to Independence, 1945-1965', in A History of Singapore, edited by Ernest C.T. Chew and Edwin Lee (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 132.
For reference to a book or article if the immediately preceding footnote cites precisely the same source: Ibid. (or, if reference is to a different page, Ibid., p.xx). [Ibid. is an abbreviation for the Latin word, ibidem, meaning in the same place.] For example:
- Lee Kuan Yew, The Battle for Merger (Singapore: Government Printing Office, 1961), p. 5.
- Ibid., p. 8.
For reference to a book or article cited in an earlier (but not immediately preceding) footnote: Author's surname, abbreviated title, page/s. For example:
- Yeo Kim Wah, Political Development in Singapore 1945-1955 (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1973), pp. 98-105.
- John Drysdale, Singapore: Struggle for Success (Singapore: Times Books International, 1984), p. 337.
- Yeo, Political Development, p. 107.
For reference to a document quoted by another historian or in a collection of documents: cite both the document and the printed source. For example:
Raffles' letter to a Nathaniel Wallich, 28 March 1824, J. Bastin, ed., 'The Letters of Sir Stamford Raffles to Nathaniel Wallich', Journal of the Malaysian Branch Royal Asiatic Society, 54, 2 (1981), 34.
Books and articles consulted while doing research should be listed in a Bibliography at the end of an essay. Entries should be in alphabetical order by the author's surname, and, in the case of long bibliographies, the list may be divided by category, such as books, articles, printed documents, etc. This is not necessary for the short bibliographies that accompany your term papers.
A bibliography should include all sources that have been used. It should not be an exhaustive list of all the sources on the topic nor should it be padded to impress your tutor. Every source listed in the bibliography should appear in at least one footnote. Please note that the style used for bibliographies is very different from that used in footnotes. The author's surname (or the first author surname in the case of a work written by multiple authors) is listed first and that fullstops (and note commas) are used to separate each field of information. The following details should be given:
- For books: Author (surname first). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. For example:
Chew, Melanie. Leaders of Singapore. Singapore: Resource Press, 1996.
- For books with various authors or editors: Author/s or Editor/s. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. For example:
Chew, Ernest C.T. and Edwin Lee (eds.). A History of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1991.
- For articles in journals: Author (surname first). 'Title of article', Journal, volume, number (year), page numbers. For example:
Milne, R.S. 'Singapore's exit from Malaysia: the consequences of ambiguity', Asian Survey, 6, 3 (March 1966), 175-84.
- For articles in an edited compilation: Author (surname first). 'Title of article'. In Title of book, page numbers. Edited by (name of editor/s). Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. For example:
Yeo, Kim Wah and Albert Lau. 'From Colonialism to Independence, 1945-1965'. In A History of Singapore, pp. 117-153. Edited by Ernest C.T. Chew and Edwin Lee. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Alternative Referencing Method (Author-Date Citation)
Also known as parenthetical citation or parenthetical documentation, the author-date method is an alternative referencing system you can use in place of the footnoting system. The principle behind this system is that only a minimal amount of information about your source needs to be found in-text.
There are two parts to this citation system. The reference to your source, which will appear in the body of your essay, and a bibliography that will appear at the back of your essay.
Suppose you want to cite some information you've found on page 191 of Chua Beng-huat's book, Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore, which is published by Routledge in 1995. Here are some snippets from a possible student essay:
Example 1. According to Chua Beng-huat, communitarianism often gives rise to authoritarianism (191).
Example 2. According to Chua Beng-huat, communitarianism often gives rise to authoritarianism (1995:191)
Example 3. In spite of communitarianism being a cultural practice different from liberalism, it often gives rise to authoritarianism (Chua 191).
Example 4. In spite of communitarianism being a cultural practice different from liberalism, it often gives rise to authoritarianism (Chua 1995:191).
You will use example 1 when you are only using one work from this particular author. As a result, you don't have to provide very much information. Since the author's name is already mentioned in the text, all you'll have to provide is the page number. Example 2 should be used, however, when you are citing from more than one of this author's work in your essay. The year of publication in the parantheses tells the reader which of Chua's work you are referring to. When you don't mention the author's name at all in your text, you will have to place his surname or last name in the parantheses, as you see in examples 3 and 4. Example 3 presumes that you are using only one of Chua's works in your essay, and example 4 is used when more than one of this author's works are used in your essay.
To recap all you have to do is to place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number within the brackets:
(author's surname year of publication:page number or range)
Not all information needs to be placed within the parantheses, and as mentioned, it depend
- How many different sources are you using from this particular author
- How much have you already mentioned about this author in the sentence that needs a citation
Bibliographies in Essays using the Author-Date method
Since very little information is provided about your sources within the body of your essay, having a detailed bibliography at the end of your essay is very important. It will allow your readers to identify the full title and publication information of the work you have referenced and to distinguish between works from the same author.
The format of the bibliography is the same as the footnoting system (mentioned above). You may follow the instructions above to to compile the bibliography you will use with parenthetical citation. It is becoming common practice for the bibliography format to be slightly altered when it is used in conjunction with parenthetical citation. Since the year of publication is an important means of making a distinction between different works produced by the same author, many journals and book publishers are now placing the year of publication right after the author's name (in the case of a single authored work) or the list of authors (in the case of a multi-authored work). Here are some examples:
Chua, Beng-huat (1995). Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore. London: Routledge. Chew, Ernest C.T. and Edwin Lee, eds. (1991). A History of Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press. Milne, R.S. (1966). 'Singapore's Exit from Malaysia: The Consequences of Ambiguity'. Asian Survey 6,3: 175-184. Yeo, Kim Wah and Albert Lau (1991). 'From Colonialism to Independence, 1945-1965'. In A History of Singapore. Eds. Ernest C.T. Chew and Edwin Lee. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 117-153.
In some cases, you may use two works by the same author published in the same year. What you would do is to provide an alphabetical identifier. So your essay may read:
C.J.W.-L. Wee, an extremely versatile observer of the Singapore cultural scene writes about a wide variety of subjects, ranging from the left-leaning independence era politician, Lim Chin Siong (1996a), to current day pop music composer Dick Lee (1996b).
And in your bibliography:
Wee, C.J.W.-L. (1996a). 'The Vanquished: Lim Chin Siong and the Progressivist National Narrative'. Lee's Lieutenants: Singapore's Old Guard. Eds. Lam Peng Er and Kevin Y.L. Tan. St Leonards: Allen and Unwin, 169-190. Wee, C.J.W.-L. (1996b). 'Representing the "New" Asia: Dick Lee, Pop Music, and a Singapore Modern'. Transnational Asia Pacific: Gender, Culture, and the Public Sphere. Eds. Shirley Geok-lin Lim et al. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 111-133.
Use of footnotes in parenthetical citation.
Since all references to your sources are now placed within the body of your essay, you will no longer need to use footnotes for any form of referencing. However you will still use footnotes if you wish to make a comment that cannot be included in your essay. For instance, you may want to expand on a term that you've introduced in your essay but feel the flow of your argument doesn't allow you to do this. If this is the case, put that in a footnote.